Semantic Blockchain: Semantic web on/with the blockchain

Finding all the ways to inject, insert, use, relate, apply, etc. Semantic web principles on blockchain based technologies. Author: Héctor Ugarte

Linked Blockchain Data

Title: A more pragmatic Web 3.0: Linked Blockchain Data
PDF Download Link: Linked_Blockchain_Data_paper

Linked Data is proclaimed as the Semantic Web done right. The Semantic Web is an incomplete dream so far, but a homogeneous revolutionary platform as a network of Blockchains could be the solution to this not optimal reality. This research paper introduces some initial hints and ideas about how a futuristic Internet that might be composed and powered by Blockchains networks would be constructed and designed to interconnect data and meaning, thus allow reasoning. An industrial application where Blockchain and Linked Data fits perfectly as a Supply Chain management system is also researched.

Blockchain and standarization


Currently there are thousands of Blockchain projects worldwide, some of them based on forks of successful networks like Bitcoin or Ethereum, or others proposing completely new functionalities and architectures. If we envisage a future where Blockchain technology will be a pillar in the future Internet, it is necessary to begin discussing and identifying different possible standards that should be used in future Blockchain implementations. These standards would make it possible to easily interconnect projects of a different nature and to standardize the principles of this technology.


The evolution of Blockchain technology can be contrasted with the Internet. In Web 1.0 existing before 1999, and known as the Internet “read only” or “Web of documents” the information was only displayed with the possibility to use hyperlinks, then appeared the Web 2.0 known as the “Web of the people”, Where users could collaborate with content and / or modify them. Finally, the Web 3.0 “Data Web”, where information is shared and linked. Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, anticipates this evolution by proposing a fundamental pillar of the Web 3.0 known as the Semantic Web which is a set of technologies and frameworks.

The Semantic Web is based on RDF, a model for representing metadata. A set of RDF statements constitute a directed graph, in this way a large graph of linked data can be constructed. The main benefits of this technology are:

  • Consistency.
  • Standardization.
  • Ability to link and map data.

A first effort to standardize this technology is the BLONDiE (Blockchain Ontology with Dynamic Extensibility) ontology. This OWL ontology can be used to express in RDF different fields of the structures of Ethereum or Bitcoin. It can also be extended to cover other Blockchain technologies. In addition, BLONDiE being OWL has the ability to make explicit knowledge available.



An ideal scenario would be that everyone would use only the original Bitcoin technology, and / or forks with minimum modifications. The protocol itself is already standardized and well-defined, but Bitcoin since presents many limitations and not being designed for other functionalities different than financial transactions, is not a realistic scenario. Currently the interoperability between Blockchain technologies is one of the most discussed issues in the Blockchain world and this is where we must focus our efforts.

Interledger, for example, is a project that seeks to make financial transactions between different Blockchain technologies. It does not use centralized systems like several current solutions, and promises to carry out secure transactions between a Bitcoin account and an Ethereum account among others.


The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) selected the Australian group “Standars Australia” to lead a committee to develop standards for Blockchain. The technical aspects to be covered are: terminology, processes and methods, privacy, cyber security, interoperability, etc.

It is necessary to start defining standards that will be used in the future. At the government level, countries should also initiate the implementation and implementation of a Blockchain system, which could have characteristics of its own and developed by engineers according to each country’s own needs.

Strategies for integrating semantic and blockchain technologies

El universo, las redes de cadena de bloques y la web semantica


Creo sinceramente que la cadena de bloques es mucho mas que una forma de transferir y crear dinero y/o bienes digitales. El problema ahora mismo, es que las seguimos viendo como un libro mayor donde solo podemos realizar transacciones, de manera directa o indirecta tomándolo como dinero. Incluso la mayoría de las ideas para interconectar diferentes cadenas de bloques se enfocan unicamente en este punto de vista económico. Al final, una cadena de bloques es solo una estructura de datos, pero que posee propiedades especiales que cualquier otra base de datos estándar no puede garantizar tener.

El enfoque correcto para interconectar diferentes cadenas de bloques puede que exista en el universo. Desde la esencia de la estructura de un átomo, o en general en cualquier ente que exista, y tal vez incluso que no exista. Es decir, podemos hacer una analogía entre una cadena de bloques y un ente existente en el universo. Cada ente tiene diferentes estados en un periodo de tiempo, cada ente interactuá con otros entes y modifica sus estados. Y es mas, si no interactuá esta “no interacción” es de por si un nuevo accionar que nuevamente puede modificar su estado.

Es aquí donde la web semántica puede jugar un rol importante. Si logramos representar las interacciones de cada ente usando un modelo ya existente como puede ser RDF. El potencial que tendría esta nueva red de redes seria tan o mas grande que la misma Internet. Una cadena de cadena de bloques, pero 100% semántica. Si una cadena de bloques está formada por bloques. Una cadena de cadenas de bloques, a lo que llamaremos de ahora en adelante “Cadena de Cadenas” estaría formada de estructuras de datos independientes, pero interconectadas entre si.

Es decir, por ejemplo, si un contrato inteligente se ejecuta en una cadena de bloques A, y este tiene clausulas que contemplen la ejecución de otras piezas de código en una cadena de bloques B. Esta interacción ya estaría de por si garantizada gracias al framework semántico existente entre ellos. De la misma manera que una transacción existente en un bloque anterior puede servir como entrada en una nueva en Bitcoin. Estas ideas son parte de lo que se conoce como la cadena de bloques semántica o “The Semantic Blockchain”.

Puede que todo esto suene demasiado ambicioso o irreal, y es altamente posible que así lo sea. Como lo fue la Web Semántica en la Internet. Pero con la cadena de bloques tenemos una pequeña gran ventaja, en donde aún estamos a tiempo de estandarizar el concepto y lograr de esa forma tener cadenas de bloques completamente homogéneas que puedan servir como el núcleo para cambiar la sociedad y la actual centralizada, sobre-regulada Internet.

More about Semantic Distributed Ledger – Semantic Blockchain

Ethereum Decentralized Supply Chain Application


under development…

Ethereum technology stack

The stack of technologies on Ethereum is:


SOURCE: Understanding Ethereum – CoinDesk

Starting ideas of The Semantic Blockchain / Semantic Distributed Ledger on Ethereum

Starting ideas of the implementation of Semantic Web Linked Data, Linked Web on Ethereum platform.

Semantification of the Blockchain – Semantic Blockchain

Three that many possibles ways to “semantify” a blockchain are:

  1. Map the existing content of the blockchain to RDF. For this, is needed different tools and semantic components. And/or
  2. Store RDF Data on the blockchain. This data can contain URI pointing to other data store inside the blockchain (non HTTP URIs, for example: Smart Contracts Addresses). And/or
  3. Create a new blockchain framework (altcoin or from scratch) based completely on Semantic web principles (Handling blockchain metadata with RDF format, enabling SPARQL queries natively, etc).


Semantic Blockchain: Bitcoin Explorer

Semantic Bitcoin Blockchain Explorer (SBBE)


One very initial good use case of BLONDiE (Blockchain Ontology with Dynamic Extensibility) is a Bitcoin Blockchain Explorer. More Precisely a Semantic Bitcoin Blockchain Explorer (SBBE).

A Blockchain Explorer is:

a program or web site that lets users search and navigate a block chain. Uses include:

  • checking address balances
  • tracking coin transfer histories
  • watching for transaction acceptance
  • monitoring the network hash rate and other statistics
    Block chain browsers typically provide:
  • a list of a chain’s recent blocks
  • transactions in a given block
  • links to the previous and next transaction involving each input and output
  • a list of all transactions involving a given address
  • current and historical address balances
  • a way to search for blocks, transactions, and addresses
  • some offer a way to broadcast a signed raw transaction


Many of the current blockchain explorers are built using relational databases schemas. Which offers many advantages, but using a Graph Based database with RDF triples could offer advantages like:

  • Datawarehousing
  • Excel and R
  • No data left behind
  • SPARQL is more consistent than SQL
  • Lower cost
  • Allows competitive tendering
  • Better performance for naturally grouped data
  • Better caching
  • SADI
  • RDF puts relations first

*For detailed information visit the source


I am not arguing that Graph Based are better than relational databases, I am just saying that they are different.

Anyway, a Semantic Bitcoin Blockchain explorer will offer an SPARQL endpoint. Where you could write SPARQL Queries and retrieve different information from the blockchain. Allowing us to “research” the Bitcoin blockchain.